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Multiple Personality and Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Treatment in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

The Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center, located in the heart of Florida, is a leading provider of evidence-based treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder. We offer a variety of treatment options tailored to each individual’s needs. Our center, nestled in beautiful Broward County and just a short drive from Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, Boca Raton, Hollywood, Coral Gables, Key West, and Pompano Beach, is renowned for its exceptional care and commitment to patient well-being.

We understand that coping with Dissociative Identity Disorder can be daunting, so we’re here to help. At The Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center, we believe in empowering our patients through comprehensive evidence-based psychotherapy, intensive outpatient, partial hospitalization and residential inpatient programs, therapies medication options, and support groups. If you or a loved one are experiencing symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder, don’t hesitate to reach out. Our dedicated team is ready to provide the support you need. Don’t wait another day – call us today to learn more about our unique treatment programs for Dissociative Identity Disorder.

What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as multiple personality disorder, is a severe and rare mental health condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identity states, each with its own unique pattern of perceiving and interacting with the world. These identities, often called alters, can control behavior, consciousness, and memory, leading to a fragmented sense of self.

The alters and identities are often accompanied by amnesia, causing individuals to lose track of time and experience a disconnection from their actual identity. This fragmented identity can cause gaps in memory and other issues. Despite its portrayal in popular media, DID is a complex and genuine mental health condition that requires careful, compassionate therapeutic intervention to help individuals navigate and manage their symptoms.

If you or someone you know and love is experiencing psychological dissociation, dial our hotline number. Please don’t carry the weight of your challenges alone. Our psychiatric crisis hotline team is skilled in mental health crisis intervention and prepared to assist you in finding the most suitable path for treatment based on your specific situation.

What Causes Dissociative Identity Disorder?

What Causes Dissociative Identity Disorder?

The primary cause of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is believed to be severe, repeated trauma, often occurring during early childhood.1 The most common trauma-induced dissociation is caused by chronic, severe emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. The mind fragments consciousness. These coping mechanisms in DID lead to the creation of distinct alters and identities. Some people have up to 100 alters.2

These dissociated identities serve as a way to manage and compartmentalize overwhelming and traumatic experiences. The developmental process of DID is intricately tied to the need for survival in the face of extreme stress, with the mind creating different personality states to navigate and endure the trauma. While genetics may play a role in a person’s susceptibility to dissociation,3 the presence of trauma remains a key factor in the development of DID.

>What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?

Different Types of Dissociative Identity Disorders

Dissociative identity disorder is a complex and varied condition that can exhibit a wide range of symptoms and manifestations. The following examples aren’t a complete list of dissociative disorders but serve as an illustration of the diverse presentations of this debilitating condition.

Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DDD) is marked by persistent feelings of detachment from one’s thoughts, emotions, body, and the external world. Unlike DID, individuals with DDD don’t exhibit distinct identity states but experience a pervasive sense of depersonalization and derealization. These feelings of detachment often arise in response to stress or trauma and can significantly impact daily functioning.

Single-switch DID

Single-switch DID

Single-switch dissociative identity disorder is where individuals experience a noticeable switch between distinct identity states. Unlike more complex DID presentations, switching in DID involves a straightforward transition triggered by specific stressors or cues. Treatment focuses on psychotherapy to address underlying trauma and integrate identity states for a more cohesive sense of self.

Multiple-switch DID

Multiple-switch DID

Multiple-switch dissociative identity disorder involves frequent, distinct switches between various alters and identities. In contrast to single-switch DID these transitions can be spontaneous or linked to specific stressors and may involve a more intricate interplay of personalities, each with its own behaviors, memories, and perceptions.

Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative amnesia is characterized by significant memory gaps, usually related to stressful or traumatic events. Individuals with dissociative amnesia may have difficulty recalling personal information, events, or aspects of their identity, often extending beyond ordinary forgetfulness. The memory loss is typically a coping mechanism, allowing individuals to distance themselves from overwhelming or distressing memories.

Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (OSDD):

Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (OSDD):

Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (OSDD) is a category that encompasses cases where individuals experience symptoms of dissociation that don’t fit established criteria. It involves disruptions in memory, identity, consciousness, or perception, but without distinct switches between identities seen in DID. Symptoms may include depersonalization, derealization, or identity confusion.

>Different Types of Dissociative Identity Disorders

At The Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Treatment Center in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, our team of dedicated professionals is ready to guide you. We offer IOP and a variety of treatments programs, each uniquely designed to meet your needs. So don’t wait, reach out to us today! Either give us a call or fill up the form below to request a callback.

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What are the Signs and Symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder?

Below, we’ll delve into the distinctive symptoms and signs related to dissociative identity disorder (DID) to gain a comprehensive understanding of this complex mental health condition and the intricate manifestations associated. Symptoms vary depending on the type of dissociative disorder and may encompass:4

  • Feeling detached from oneself and emotions
  • Perceiving distortions in people and the surrounding environment
  • Questioning reality
  • Experiencing a blurred sense of personal identity
  • Struggling with significant stress or challenges in relationships, work, or other critical life areas
  • Difficulty coping with emotional or work-related stress
  • Memory loss involving certain periods, events, people, and personal details
  • Mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors
>What are the Signs and Symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder?

What is a Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment Center?

A dissociative identity disorder (DID) treatment center is a healthcare facility staffed by mental health professionals with expertise in the condition. These rehabilitation centers focus on providing comprehensive assessment and an array of tailored therapeutic interventions for those with DID.

These behavioral health centers offer a supportive environment to explore the origins of dissociative experiences, and treatment plans may include medication management as needed. Overall, dissociative identity treatment and recovery centers play a crucial role in facilitating recovery, offering specialized care to help navigate the complexities of the disorder and work towards improved well-being.

Types of Treatment Programs for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Addressing DID often requires a comprehensive, individualized treatment approach. Treatments for dissociative identity disorder aim to help individuals integrate their distinct identity states, manage symptoms, and address underlying trauma. This overview explores different types of multiple personality disorder treatment programs, recognizing the diverse needs of individuals affected by this complex disorder.

Partial Hospitalization Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Partial Hospitalization Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

A DID Partial Hospitalization Program (PHP) provides intensive, structured treatment with daily therapeutic sessions, including individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and skill-building exercises. It allows individuals to return home in the evenings, maintaining a connection to their support systems while receiving comprehensive support and intervention.

Intensive Outpatient Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Intensive Outpatient Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

An Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) for DID provides a high level of therapeutic support while allowing individuals to live at home. This program involves frequent sessions, often several times a week, encompassing individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and skill-building activities.

IOPs offer flexibility, accommodating individuals who require intensive treatment but do not necessitate the round-the-clock care provided in inpatient treatment centers. This format enables participants to apply learned skills in their daily lives while benefiting from a structured treatment plan tailored to address the intricacies of dissociated disorders.

Outpatient Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Outpatient Program for Dissociative Identity Disorder

An outpatient program for DID provides a less intensive but ongoing therapeutic approach for managing the challenges of DID while residing at home. These programs involve regular therapy sessions in an outpatient treatment center, which may be weekly or bi-weekly, tailored to address the specific needs of each individual.

Residential Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Residential Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Residential treatment for dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves residing in a therapeutic residential treatment facility while receiving comprehensive, 24/7 care. This highly structured environment offers a safe, supportive space for healing. Residential programs often include daily therapeutic activities such as individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and skill-building exercises.

The immersive nature of residential treatment provides a focused and therapeutic setting, allowing for intensive support and treatment while integrating identity states and addressing underlying trauma. This level of care is particularly beneficial for individuals who require a higher degree of support due to the severity of their symptoms or difficulties in managing daily life independently.

Inpatient Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Inpatient Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Much like a residential program, inpatient treatment center for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) provides a comprehensive and robust treatment plan. However, the inpatient treatment unfolds within a hospital setting, offering round-the-clock medical supervision and immediate access to healthcare professionals. This level of care is particularly beneficial for individuals who require a higher degree of medical attention or stabilization. Picture a haven where every interaction is underpinned by the expertise of seasoned professionals, where individual therapy, group therapy, family therapy, and specialized therapies such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) are woven into the fabric of daily life.

Every element of these inpatient treatment centers is meticulously designed to cater to the unique needs of each patient. They focus on fostering personal growth, self-understanding, and the development of coping strategies that stand the test of time. Our mission is to empower individuals with the skills they need to manage their condition and elevate their overall quality of life. By choosing an inpatient setting, patients immerse themselves in a therapeutic community, accelerating their path to recovery. With the right inpatient program, individuals with DID can navigate their way towards a healthier future, buoyed by expert care and unwavering support.

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for DID primarily focuses on managing co-occurring conditions such as depression, anxiety, or mood disorders that often accompany DID. In fact, borderline personality disorder is a common comorbid condition with dissociative disorders.5 While there is no specific medication to treat DID directly, psychiatric medications may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms associated with co-occurring disorders.

Antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, and mood stabilizers are commonly used to address symptoms that can exacerbate the challenges of DID. The choice of medication is individualized, and mental health professionals closely monitor the effectiveness. MAT is often integrated into a broader treatment plan that includes psychotherapy and other therapeutic modalities to address DID comprehensively.

>Types of Treatment Programs for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Dissociative Identity Disorder Therapy and Treatment Center in Florida

The Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center is a distinguished Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) treatment facility in Broward County, South Florida, elevating itself beyond conventional rehabilitation centers. Our hands-on, practical, and flexible approach is specifically tailored for mental health disorders, offering evidence-based programs, including a specialized focus on multiple personality and DID.

For more information, call 877-958-9212. We recognize the unique needs of those traveling from out of state, which is why we offer comfortable accommodations when needed for a seamless transition into our impactful treatment programs. You can also visit our mental health treatment center at:

How to Find a Dissociative Identity Disorder Therapy and Treatment Center Near Me

To find a dissociative identity disorder treatment centers in near you to best fit your needs, consider the following steps:

Steps to Find DID Treatment Near You

  • Search Online: Use search engines and enter key phrases like: “dissociative identity disorder treatment centers Florida,” “dissociative identity disorder treatment facility Florida,” or ” Florida dissociative complex PTSD treatment” to locate local specialty treatment centers.
  • Dissociative Disorders Specialists: Seek specialists or therapists in Florida with expertise in dissociative disorders by using keywords like “DID specialist Florida” or “dissociative disorders therapist FL.”
  • Trauma-Focused Treatment Center Miami/Tampa/Orlando (or specific city): Specify your location for targeted results. Replace the city name with your specific location to find dissociative disorder treatment centers in your immediate area.
  • Search for Integrative Mental Health Therapy Clinic: Consider using terms like “integrative medical treatment centers Florida” to find integrative treatment centers offering various DID therapy approaches.
  • DID Support Groups: Explore support groups for DID in Florida. They may provide information about local treatment centers and recommendations from individuals with similar experiences.
  • Psychiatrist Dissociative Disorders: Search for psychiatrists in FL specializing in dissociative disorders, as they may offer a more comprehensive approach to treatment, including medication management if needed.
  • DID Treatment Programs South Florida: Use regional terms like “South Florida” in your search for DID treatment programs to find centers in the southern part of the Sunshine State.
  • Trauma-Informed Therapy: Look for therapy and wellness centers explicitly mentioning being trauma-informed, as DID types are typically trauma-related disorders.
  • Mental Health Rehabilitation Center: Explore mental health treatment centers that may offer specialized programs for those struggling with dissociative disorders.
  • Holistic Therapy for DID: If interested in holistic approaches, use keywords like “holistic treatment center for DID FL” to find centers in Florida incorporating alternative therapies.

>Dissociative Identity Disorder Therapy and Treatment Center in Florida

Types of Therapy and Counseling for Dissociative Identity Disorder

The therapeutic journey for individuals with DID often involves various counseling and therapeutic approaches tailored to address the unique challenges associated with this complex condition. Below are examples of therapy treatments for dissociative identity disorder, recognizing that these represent only a subset of the diverse approaches available to support you or your loved one on your path to healing.

Trauma-Focused Therapy

Trauma-Focused Therapy

Trauma-focused therapy addresses the impact of traumatic experiences on mental health. Techniques such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) are often utilized to help individuals process and integrate traumatic memories. Trauma-focused therapy assists in reducing distress, fostering healing, and facilitating the integration of distinct identity states by addressing the root causes of dissociation.6

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Trauma (CBT-T)

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Trauma (CBT-T)

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Trauma (CBT-T) is a specialized form of cognitive-behavioral therapy tailored to address the unique challenges of those who’ve experienced trauma. CBT-T combines traditional CBT techniques with trauma-informed approaches for recognizing and modifying distorted thought patterns, managing distressing emotions, and developing effective coping strategies.

CBT-T addresses the specific cognitive and emotional challenges associated with a fragmented identity. By focusing on the interplay between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, CBT-T assists individuals in managing symptoms related to trauma and supports the process of integrating distinct identity states for a more cohesive sense of self.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) combines CBT with mindfulness strategies to help individuals manage intense emotions and improve interpersonal effectiveness. It’s often beneficial for addressing mood swings, emotional dysregulation, and difficulties in maintaining stable relationships, which are common challenges associated with the disorder.

DBT emphasizes skills training in areas such as distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness, and mindfulness, providing individuals with practical tools to navigate the complexities of their emotions and relationships. By fostering greater emotional stability and interpersonal skills, DBT supports individuals with DID in their journey toward improved overall functioning and well-being.

Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy

Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy

Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy is a therapeutic approach that can be particularly relevant for individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID). IFS views the mind as consisting of various sub-personalities or “parts,” each with its unique role and function. IFS helps individuals explore and understand the coexistence of identities in DID.

The therapist collaborates with the individual to establish a compassionate relationship with these different internal parts, facilitating communication and cooperation among them. By fostering inner harmony and balance, IFS aims to promote integration, reduce internal conflicts, and contribute to a more cohesive sense of self for managing DID. This approach emphasizes self-compassion and acknowledges the adaptive functions of each identity state, leading to healing and self-discovery.7

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy is a therapeutic approach that delves into the unconscious mind, exploring how past experiences and unconscious conflicts influence current thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. For individuals with DID, psychodynamic therapy can be beneficial in uncovering the origins of identity states and addressing underlying trauma.

The therapist works with the individual to explore the unconscious processes contributing to the fragmented identity, helping to bring repressed memories and emotions to the forefront. By gaining insight into the root causes of dissociation and identity disruption, individuals can work towards integrating their identity states and achieving a more cohesive sense of self.

Attachment-Based Therapy

Attachment-Based Therapy

Attachment-based therapy focuses on the influence of early relationships and attachment patterns on psychological well-being. Attachment-based therapy can be valuable in understanding how early attachment experiences contribute to developing distinct identity states. This approach explores the impact of early caregiver relationships on an individual’s sense of self and interpersonal dynamics.

By addressing attachment-related wounds and fostering a secure therapeutic relationship, individuals with DID can work towards healing and integrating their identity states. Attachment-based therapy emphasizes creating a safe, supportive environment that promotes trust, helping individuals develop healthier relational patterns and enhance their overall well-being.

Expressive Therapies (Art, Music, Dance, Drama)

Expressive Therapies (Art, Music, Dance, Drama)

Expressive therapies, including art, music, dance, and drama, provide alternative channels to explore and communicate experiences. These methods are particularly valuable when verbal expression may be challenging or when emotions are difficult to articulate. Expressive therapies offer a non-verbal, creative outlet to connect with and express the diverse aspects of identity states.

Art therapy, for instance, allows individuals to visually represent their internal experiences, while music, dance, and drama therapy offer embodied forms of expression. These therapies can be powerful tools in promoting self-discovery, emotional processing, and integration, contributing to the overall healing process for individuals navigating the complexities of DID.

Integrative Approaches

Integrative Approaches

Integrative approaches to dissociative identity disorder (DID) involve combining diverse therapeutic methods like trauma-focused therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. These comprehensive plans may also include expressive therapies, medication management, and mindfulness practices to address the multifaceted challenges of DID.

>Types of Therapy and Counseling for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Does Insurance Cover Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder

Insurance coverage for DID treatment varies, and it’s essential to check the specific terms of your insurance policy. In many cases, insurance plans do cover aspects of DID treatment, including psychotherapy and psychiatric services. However, coverage details, such as the extent and duration of treatment, can differ.

Taking the time to review your insurance policy thoroughly is crucial. For detailed insights into your rehab insurance coverage and the extent of financial assistance available, we strongly encourage you to call 877-958-9212. Our team of patient advocates is dedicated to offering clarity regarding your insurance coverage for dissociative identity disorder treatment, ensuring you have the information needed to make informed decisions about your mental health.

Which Health Insurance Providers Cover DID Treatment?

The coverage of DID treatment varies across health insurance providers. Major health insurance brands such as Blue Cross Blue Shield, UnitedHealthcare, Aetna, Cigna, and Humana typically offer mental health coverage, including services for DID. The specific coverage details will vary from plan to plan, however.

For inquiries about coverage for DID treatment, you can contact your insurance provider directly or contact us for comprehensive details. We’re prepared to assist you in reviewing your policy documents to ensure your specific needs are addressed. Beyond coverage details, we can explore potential financial assistance and answer any questions you may have. Your well-being is our top priority, and we’re dedicated to helping you navigate the complexities of insurance coverage for dissociative disorders and other mental health concerns.

>Which Health Insurance Providers Cover DID Treatment?

Dissociative Identity Disorder Testing and Free Assessment

At the Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center, we offer comprehensive assessments for dissociative identity disorder using evidence-based evaluations and tools. Our team of experts has a deep understanding of DID symptoms and their impact, which allows us to provide a clear and detailed diagnosis as well as a personalized treatment developed for your specific needs.

Our healthcare facility is renowned for clinical excellence in treating mental health disorders. Reach out for your free assessment at 877-958-9212. With a commitment to providing thorough and compassionate care, our detailed evaluations form the foundation for shaping a precise and effective strategy to understand and address your DID-related issues.

What is The DID Therapy Program Admissions Process?

The admission process for dissociative identity disorder (DID) therapy and treatment program is carefully designed to ensure you or your loved one receive tailored care and support throughout your participation. While specific details may vary across treatment centers, the following will provide a general overview:

Admissions Process

  • Initial contact begins when you, the individual seeking treatment, a family member, or a referring professional makes a phone call, online inquiry, or consultation with the treatment center.
  • Assessments and evaluations are conducted to gauge your mental health, history, and specific concerns related to dissociative identity disorder. These may include the Dissociative Experiences Scale, other questionnaires, or related assessments that help professionals clearly understand your needs.[i]
  • Insurance verification and coverage determine the extent of benefits. This is crucial for understanding the treatment’s financial aspects and identifying potential out-of-pocket costs.
  • Treatment plan development is based on the assessment. This plan outlines the specific therapeutic interventions, modalities, and goals tailored to address your dissociative disorder and related concerns.
  • Admissions coordination involves treatment center staff working with you to finalize rehab admission This may include coordinating logistics, scheduling, and completing all necessary paperwork.
  • Orientation and program introduction occur upon admission. This phase helps familiarize you with the treatment center, its staff, and the overall structure of the DID therapy program.
  • Active treatment participation may include individual therapy, group therapy, and other therapeutic modalities designed to address DID symptoms, trauma, and associated challenges.
  • Progress monitoring and adjustments are regularly made, and the treatment plan is adjusted as needed. This ensures that your evolving needs and responses to therapy are continually addressed for optimal outcomes.Top of Form

>What is The DID Therapy Program Admissions Process?

How Much Does Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment Cost in Florida?

The economic impact of trauma and dissociative disorders is substantial, considering individuals with these conditions often undergo lengthy treatment spanning several years, with many experiencing repeated hospitalizations over time.9 DID treatment costs in Florida vary significantly and depend on factors such as insurance and the therapeutic methods used.

Certain research studies have determined that a prompt and precise diagnosis of dissociative disorders, coupled with suitable trauma- and dissociation-focused treatment, could significantly reduce the overall expenses associated with DID treatment, even in instances where patients experience severe impairment.10

Additionally, many treatment centers offer financial assistance or flexible payment plans to improve accessibility when needed. Understanding the expenses, details, and payment procedures associated with your unique treatment plan is imperative. Contact us for a comprehensive estimate of your DID treatment costs today.

  • The Dissociative Experiences Scale is among several assessment tools designed for diagnosing DID. This 28-item self-report instrument primarily assesses the absorption of external information, utilization of imagination, depersonalization, derealization, and amnesia.11
  • Dissociative identity disorder is diagnosed in approximately 1.5% of the global population.12
  • Individuals diagnosed with dissociative disorders frequently experience multiple emergencies, often involving self-injurious behavior and, at times, substance use.13
  • Individuals seeking treatment may undergo a treatment duration ranging from 5 to 12.5 years before receiving a diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder.14
  • Research suggests that individuals with dissociative identity disorder are more susceptible to hypnosis compared to other clinical populations.15
  • Ongoing treatment is typically necessary for individuals with DID, as they continue to need reality-based and grounding interventions.16
  • The rate of diagnosis for DID is similar to that of schizophrenia, and it’s a public health problem that requires attention.17
  • Patients with DID are often initially misdiagnosed.
  • Dissociative identity disorder is rarely seen without another disorder present.18
  • Diagnoses of dissociative disorders are more prevalent among women than men.19

Sources

  1. Lynn, Steven Jay, et al. “The Trauma Model of Dissociation: Inconvenient Truths and Stubborn Fictions. Comment on Dalenberg Et Al. (2012).” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 140, no. 3, Jan. 2014, pp. 896–910. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035570.
  2. “DID Fact Sheet : What Is Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)?” NAMI Michigan, namimi.org/mental-illness/dissociative-disorder/didfactsheet. Accessed 25 Nov. 2023.
  3. Rajkumar, Ravi Philip. “The Molecular Genetics of Dissociative Symptomatology: A Transdiagnostic Literature Review.” Genes, vol. 13, no. 5, May 2022, p. 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13050843.
  4. “Dissociative Disorders – Symptoms and Causes – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic, 31 Aug. 2023, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dissociative-disorders/symptoms-causes/syc-20355215.
  5. Brand, Bethany L., and Ruth A. Lanius. “Chronic Complex Dissociative Disorders and Borderline Personality Disorder: Disorders of Emotion Dysregulation?” Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, vol. 1, no. 1, Jan. 2014, p. 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/2051-6673-1-13.
  6. “What Is Trauma-Focused Therapy?” Center for Child Trauma Assessment and Service Planning, 20 Apr. 2020, cctasi.northwestern.edu/trauma-focused-therapy.
  7. Laurence, Emily. “What Is Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy?” Forbes Health, 4 Sept. 2023, www.forbes.com/health/mind/what-is-internal-family-systems-therapy-ifs.
  8. Saggino, Aristide, et al. “Improving the Psychometric Properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II): A Rasch Validation Study.” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1, Jan. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2417-8.
  9. Myrick, Amie C., et al. “Treatment of Dissociative Disorders and Reported Changes in Inpatient and Outpatient Cost Estimates.” European Journal of Psychotraumatology, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1375829.
  10. Lloyd, Mike. “How Investing in Therapeutic Services Provides a Clinical Cost Saving in the Long Term.” Health Service Journal, 8 Sept. 2011, www.hsj.co.uk/service-design/how-investing-in-therapeutic-services-provides-a-clinical-cost-saving-in-the-long-term/5033382.article.
  11. Dubester, Kathryn A., and Bennett G. Braun. “Psychometric Properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 183, no. 4, Apr. 1995, pp. 231–35. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199504000-00008.
  12. Mitra, Paroma. “Dissociative Identity Disorder.” StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf, 16 May 2023, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568768.
  13. Spiegel, David, et al. “Dissociative Disorders in DSM-5.” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, vol. 9, no. 1, Mar. 2013, pp. 299–326. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185531.
  14. Brand, Bethany L., et al. “Dispelling Myths About Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment: An Empirically Based Approach.” Psychiatry MMC, vol. 77, no. 2, June 2014, pp. 169–89. https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.2014.77.2.169.
  15. “Psychopathology, Hypnotizability, and Dissociation.” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 149, no. 11, Nov. 1992, pp. 1521–25. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.149.11.1521.
  16. Mitra, Paroma. “Dissociative Identity Disorder.” StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf, 16 May 2023, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568768.
  17. Fedai, Ülker, and Mehmet Reşit Asoğlu. “Analysis of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Dissociative Identity Disorder.” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. Volume 18, Dec. 2022, pp. 3035–44. https://doi.org/10.2147/ndt.s386648.
  18. Kluft, Richard P. “First-rank Symptoms as a Diagnostic Clue to Multiple Personality Disorder.” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 144, no. 3, Mar. 1987, pp. 293–98. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.144.3.293.
  19. “Dissociative Disorders.” NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness, www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions/Dissociative-Disorders. Accessed 25 Nov. 2023.
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